When changing the guest OS password of root, you may encounter an Authentication token manipulation error. This message occurs because the /etc/shadow file is not present. You can add the shadow file by entering 'pwconv', then the root password can be set. See the example below.

bash-3.2# passwd
Changing password for user root.
passwd: Authentication token manipulation error

bash-3.2# pwconv
bash-3.2# passwd
Changing password for user root.
New UNIX password:
Retype new UNIX password:
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.


In addition to bug fixes, AXP 1.6.2 adds support for the new SM-SRE-710-K9 and SM-SRE-910-K9 service modules. Additionally, the expiration check of the authorization bundle is no longer enforced in AXP 1.6.2. The authorization bundle, which is provided by Cisco Developer Network, grants permission to run applications on the AXP platform. In addition to security information, the authorization bundle also contains an expiration date. Starting from AXP 1.6.2, the check on this expiration date is no longer enforced. However, the security check remains the same.

On the router Cisco IOS Release 12.4(24)T2 or 15.0(1)M1 and higher is recommended, dependent upon the router type. Please see the AXP Release Notes for more information. The platform files and documentation can be downloaded from our Knowledge Base


The AXP upgrade process provides key features such as automatic deletion of previously installed files that are not included in the upgrade package. However, in order to not delete previously installed files, the upgrade process requires that previously installed files be included in the upgrade package which can lead to bloated packages. To simply the package and reduce package size, users can create a patch to modify only intended files. For example, if the initial installed package contained File-A, File-B and File-C, and the desire is to modify just File-C, then only the modified File-C would be included in the patch. Bear in mind that similar to upgrading, modified files must have the same directory location and name as the previously installed file that is to be modified.

The patch process is fairly simple. A package is created with only the files that are to be added or intended to replace existing files. This small package must be set as dependent upon the installed package it is intended to modify. For example, if the assigned uuid of the installed package is: cc1694d0-0323-403a-9ae9-77686086529e, then the packaging script of the intended patch should contain the parameter and value '--deps cc1694d0-0323-403a-9ae9-77686086529e, all'.
This established dependency forces the soon-to-be installed patch to modify only the intended package specified via the 'deps' parameter. Once the patch has been packaged it is then installed via the AXP cli 'software install package url ...'.

As the reader can see the advantage of using patches is that much smaller packages can be created and installed with just the desired files. An installed application can be patched as many times as desired, and patches can even be upgraded, though the upgrade rules would still apply.

There are some limitations of patches. Since automatic deletion is not supported, deletion of files should be managed via the post installation script. Finally, there is no version control of patches, which means that if a patch is uninstalled the added and modified files are fully removed.


AXP version 1.6.1 has added support for Simple Network Management Protocol SNMPv2c. SNMP commands used in Cisco AXP are similar to Cisco IOS software SNMP commands. The AXP User Guide provides examples of traps generated by agents in SNMP that are utilized by Cisco AXP. Please review the AXP User Guide section 'System Management using SNMP and CDP' along with the Command Reference Guide for more information.

Support for USB devices such as cameras, printers and communication hardware that match the specified device classes listed in AXP has been added. See the AXP User Guide section 'USB Devices' for additional details. Additional support may be added via kernel modules, and is described in the AXP User Guide section 'Appendix 3'.

Finally the /tmp directory may now be optionally mounted to the hard disk eliminating the previous default limitation of 16 MB when mounted to memory - tempfs. If memory usage is preferred then optionally if swap is turned on, the /tmp directory may be mounted to tempfs with the memory space to be utilized specified at packaging time. Please consult the AXP Developer Guide section 'Application /tmp Directory' for more information.


In addition to bug fixes, the AXP 1.5.2 maintenance release builds upon AXP 1.5.1- see the blog 'AXP 1.5.1 Release - A Giant Leap Forward' - by adding support for two new service modules. The SRE 700 has a 1.86 GHz cpu, 4 GB Ram, and a 500 GB HD. The SRE 900 offers Raid 1 support, has a 1.86 GHz dual core cpu, 4 GB RAM and 2x500 GB HD. Raid-1 and linear raid can be selected as options at install time. This new hardware runs on the new Cisco Generation 2 routers which require IOS require IOS version 15.0(1)M or higher

Backed by popular request a new internal interface (mgf) has been added to allow for inter-blade (i.e., AXP to AXP) communication within the same router.

See the AXP 1.5.2 release notes for more information. The software and documentation are available at the AXP CCO site: . Be sure to read and subscribe to the AXP product announcements forum at . This CDN site also includes support documentation, software, forums and white papers designed to make use of AXP much easier and smoother.


AXP takes a huge step forward by adding new hardware support and software features. I¿ll discuss many of the new hardware and features below.

New hardware for the AIM card generation, now called AIM2, replaces the older AIM card and has a faster CPU and twice as much RAM. This AIM2 card can be inserted into the previously supported routers including the new ISR Generation 2 routers 19xx, 29xx, 39xx and 89x. The first supported Service Ready Engine service module runs on the new Generation 2 routers and has 1.066 GHz cpu, 512 MB RAM and 4 GB eUSB disk. Service modules and cards running on the Generation 2 routers require IOS version 15.0(1)M or higher.

There are many new software supported features as well. The AXP kernel has been upgraded to AXP now supports Red Hat Package Module (RPM) extraction. RPM modules now only need to be packaged with the application and they will be automatically extracted into the guest environment. With the addition of RPM support, the previously built in Python and JVM support files have been removed, so developers will want to include the appropriate RPM file when packaging applications that require this support. The guest environment has been upgraded from the previously supported Fedora Core 4 to a much more current release of CentOS 5.2. Developers preferring to import their own Linux operating system into the guest environment will be pleased to know that AXP now supports this feature via user defined Linux environment (UDL).

Support of Cisco add on packages has been greatly simplified. Rather than having to bundle these packages with your application or install them separately, the Cisco supported add on packages are now built into the system. By simply specifying the UUID of the Cisco add on package as a dependency the package will now be dynamically added to the guest environment at install time.

Many other features have been added as well. AXP now includes enhanced timezone support making it easier to share and correct timezones. Additional script hooks have been added to allow for application/system checks prior to and during an upgrade. An optional shutdown timeout switch has been added to ensure that applications are gracefully shutdown. A new set of APIs have been provided ¿ AXP SysInfo and SysOp which provide AXP operation and system information to the application.

See the AXP 1.5.1 release notes for more information. The software and documentation are available at the AXP CCO site: . Be sure to read and subscribe to the AXP product announcements forum at . This CDN site also includes support documentation, software, forums and white papers designed to make use of AXP much easier and smoother.


After downloading the provided AXP gzipped tar files for your service module, if you are using a windows environment, you might decide to untar the files with WinZip. If this choice is made, caution must be taken because WinZip has a 'TAR file smart CR/LF Conversion' feature. This conversion feature will change any text based file from LF to CRLF line formatting when using source tar files, and will corrupt the AXP files. Be sure that you uncheck this option in WinZip before you untar AXP files. For example, in WinZip version 12.0 this option is found via Options/Configuration.../Miscellaneous.

Symptoms caused by untarring an AXP platform file via WinZip with the 'TAR file smart ...' option turned on have been seen during installation of the corrupted AXP platform files onto the service module. These corrupted files typically produce error messages such as: "invalid literal for long(): PRT_SIZE" and "TypeError: cannot concatenate 'str' and 'instance' objects".

If you encounter error messages during installation such as those mentioned above, you should check the md5sum of your AXP platform files that you are attempting to install. In Linux this step is easily done by typing 'md5sum <filename>' on the command line. In windows you may need to download a program such as WinMD5Sum in order to get the md5sum value of your files.

I've provided the correct md5 sum values of a few files to use for reference. If your md5sum values do not match, then download your files again and untar the files only after unchecking the WinZip option mentioned in this blog.

NME Files for AXP 1.1.5
4d6d8d34fa61896041490566848533ae axp-k9.nme.1.1.5.pkg
d2c96ea1ee0d7fa6dd30a8b3660b69e5 axp-k9.nme.1.1.5.prt1

AIM Files for AXP 1.1.5
87a8acb86548c5dd7f224c9c80ad7514 axp-k9.aim.1.1.5.pkg
d68b35cb381c1e5b9b17ad1ba4255e23 axp-k9.aim.1.1.5.prt1


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